Annotated Bibliographies

  1. Loria, Kevin. “Trump Suggested the NFL Is Being Ruined Now That It’s Addressing Brain Injuries – Here’s What Collisions Do to Players.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 26 Sept. 2017,

The author is Kevin Loria. He is a writer, he writes about health and science for Business Insider. This article talks about the how a concussion injury happens when the brand slams into the skull cause trauma to the brain (concussion). The purpose of this text is to inform the people about what causes and what happens when you have a concussion. Also in this text he explains what CTE is and how it affects someone long term. The intended audience for this text is researchers, doctors, and it could possibly be for coaches as well. I find this text useful because he helped me to understand the process that goes on inside of the players head as the concussion is occurring or the reason why it occurred.

2. Scutti, Susan. “NFL Announces $100 Million Concussion Initiative.” CNN, Cable News Network, 14 Sept. 2016,

The author of this article is Susan Scutti. She is an American fiction writer, poet, and a journalist currently writing on medical issues for Newsweek, CNN, CBS Philly, and Medical Daily. She received her undergraduate degree from Yale University then went ahead an earned her master degree in American studies from CUNY.  The evidence that exists in this text is that NFL commissioner Roger Goodell announced that he wanted an initiative intended to increase the safety of the game. Specifically preventing, diagnosing, and treating head injuries. The league and its 32 club owners are planning on providing $100 million in support of engineering advancements and medical research. Since 2002 the NFL made 42 rule changes just to protect the players. Every game there are 29 medical professionals on duty. Suicides are also caused because of CTE. Former Chicago Bears defensive back Dave Duerson, 50, was a victim of this. The purpose of this text is for players to realize how serious and dangerous it is to suffer from concussions. And that the after effects from concussions are real and life threatening. The intended audience for this article is probably the whole world because this was written on CNN, which is one of the main and most popular news channels in the world. Reading this article, it helped me understand my research because it gives me understanding of the diagnosis, treatment, lawsuits, suicides, and everything that come along with having a concussion.


3. Tanier, Mike. “The Race Is on for a ‘Concussion Pill’ as New NFL Season Begins.” Bleacher Report, Bleacher Report, 1 Sept. 2017,

The author of this text is Mike Tanier. Mike taught mathematics in Suburban South Jersey. This article talks about how there is a pill “concussion pill” that could be coming soon. In 2025 Dr.William Korinek, the CEO of Astrocyte Pharmaceuticals predicts this pill will be out. This pill is supposed to turbocharge the brain’s ability to heal its own damage. It could possibly be hope for concussion victims and CTE sufferers. This purpose of this text is to let the people know about the medication doctors are planning to create to help with the effects of having a concussion. The intended audience for this text is probably medical physicians.  This article does not help me with my research because finding a diagnostic isn’t what I am talking about or including into my research. My research is more about how concussions occur and how the world feels about them.

4. Belson, Ken. “N.F.L. Reports a Decline in Concussions This Season.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 26 Jan. 2017,

The author of this text is Ken Belson. Ken covers the N.FL. for the New York Times that includes writing about stadiums, teams, medical issues and etc. In this article that started off talking about how this season already the number of concussions had fallen 11.3 percent. Since the league began releasing concussion statistics, the number of concussions in preseason practices had declined the most, but the numbers in games declined marginally. The purpose of this text is to give people an estimation of the percentage of concussion that has happened in the past years and the percentage for the current years. The intended audience for this text would probably be data base researchers. This article helps me to know how the stats of concussions and how they have changed and gotten better or how they have gotten worst.

5. “NFL & Concussions: First Evidence of Brain Injury in Living Ex-Players.” Time, Time,

The author of this text is Alice Park. Ms. Park is a staff worker at TIME.  For a while the NFL stood by a contention that there was no direct evidence that football is linked to traumatic brain injury. At first, they were saying the evidence they had was circumstantial and found signs of TBI in deceased players. Of the retired players 40% show evidence of abnormal brain structures. It’s not the big hits of the concussion but most likely the repetitive banging that causes the problems. The purpose of this text is to let people know that there is actually evidence that football can cause TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury). The intended audience for this article is sport magazine readers. This text did not help me with my research.

6. “NFL Concussions Fast Facts.” CNN, Cable News Network, 22 Sept. 2017,

This article was published by the CNN Library. Most concussion occur without losing consciousness. Symptoms of concussions are imbalance, headaches, confusion, memory loss, vision change, hearing change, mood change, fatigue, and etc. This article also gives the number of concussions that occurred over time and in the past years. Also give a timeline. The purpose of this article is to warn players or the people in general the symptoms of concussions, so that they can stay aware and know what’s wrong if they ever happen to have one. The intended audience for this text is people all over the world only because this article is on one of the top news websites in America. This article did not help me with my research.

7. Giles, Matt. “What Happens To A Football Player’s Brain During A Concussion?” Popular Science, 5 Feb. 2016,

The author of this text is Matt Giles. Matt published this on February 5, 2016. From the NFL, there were 271 documented game related concussions this past season. One-third of those were mainly caused by helmet to helmet contact. Neurotransmitters chemical that allow neurons to communicate to each other are released in the brain but once an athlete gets hit and the trauma is so great those neurotransmitters are chaotic and rendered effectively useless. At this time the new membranes surrounding the brains cells stretch so thin that ions like potassium and sodium flow out of the neurons and into the fluid packed extracellular space. The purpose of this article was to let people know that this injury could be the injury that ends the NFL. Basically, because it’s dangerous. The intended audience for this text is surgeons, and medical doctors. This helped me with my research because it breaks down and specifically tells how everything inside of your head happens once a concussion is about to occur.

8. Shaw, Gina. “New Rules for Football Concussions.” WebMD, WebMD,

The author of this is Gina Shaw. Gina has written about health care and medical topics for over 10 years. She has a bachelor’s degree in English from Georgetown University and a master’s degree in nonfiction writing from John Hopkins University. NFL isn’t the only league that has problems with concussions. A study from the national center for injury prevention found that 47% of high school say they suffer a concussion each season. 85% of sport related concussion go unnoticed. An athlete that has symptoms such as dizziness or nausea more than 15 minutes they should be benched until he’s been symptom free for a week. The purpose of this text is to notify that concussions don’t only happen in NFL football. Middle school, and high school football is also involved. The type of audience that would engage themselves with this text are football physicians, trainers, and also maybe some doctors. This text was not helpful for my research.

9. “JNS JOURNAL OF Neurosurgery OFFICIAL JOURNALS OF THE AANS since 1944.” Can Helmet Design Reduce the Risk of Concussion in Football? | Journal of Neurosurgery, Vol 120, No 4,

The authors of this text are several neurosurgeons. They graduated with a doctorate’s degree of some sort in the medical field.  In this article they talk about how concussion incidence can be reduced by rule changes and teaching proper tackling techniques. It is still a debate about whether or not helmet designs reduce the incidences of concussions. The purpose of this text is to show and explain how helmets were tested by different collegiate players to show that either helmets help reduce the concussion rate or how they do not. The intended audience that would read this article would be players, football teams and the teams medical physicians. This helped with my research because I can explain how helmets are a big role in football and how it plays an important role for the safety of the game.

10. Levy, Michael L., et al. “Birth and Evolution of the Football Helmet | Neurosurgery | Oxford Academic.” OUP Academic, Oxford University Press, 1 Sept. 2004,

This text was also written by several neurosurgeons. They graduated with a doctorate’s degree in the medical field. This text they tell how they review the advent and evolution of helmets through historical, physiological, and biomechanical analysis. They found significant correlations for helmets between 1896 and the mid-1900’s. The competition between helmet manufactures benefited the goal of injury prevention. The purpose of this text is to is to show that doctors have done research about how to make the design of helmets better so that the rate of concussion will continue to decrease. The intended audience for this text is likely helmet manufactures. This text did not help me with my research.

11. “STARS.” Site,

The author of this text is Richard C. Crepeau. Richard is a professor of history at the University of Central Florida. He received his education (Ph.D.) at Florida State University. In this text Richard talks about how the issue of concussions have been discussed, debated, lied about, and studied. He tells us that the people that are paid by the NFL and the employees of the NFL has shown some correlation between head trauma, various symptoms of brain dysfunctions, and football. The purpose of this text is to just inform us about how concussions and football have been a big worry and topic for decades. He tells a story about a former player that went through having several concussions during his time in the NFL. And now he’s having to live with the after effects. The intended audience of this text could be other former players, and present players. This text help me with my research because I can understand the way that concussions take an effect on a player’s body after they’re done playing football.

12. “Concussions in Athletes Produce Brain Dysfunction as…: NeuroReport.” LWW,

The author of this journal article is William P. Meehan. III MD. He is doctor primarily located in Chelmsford, MA. Dr. Meehan has 11 years of experience and his specialties are Psychiatry and Neurology. In this text he talks about how he thinks so former athletes or people that have been in car crashes have had concussion that went undiagnosed. He thinks as though concussions are under reported. 486 patients have reported that they have had an undiagnosed concussion. The purpose of this text is to inform people that when you’re having symptoms of a concussion after playing a sport, being in a car accident or etc. you should be checked out immediately. Sport physicians would be the intended audience for this text. This text was not useful in helping me with my research.

13. Viano, David C., et al. “Concussion in Professional Football: Performance of Newer Helmets in Reconstructed Game Impacts-Part 13 | Neurosurgery | Oxford Academic.” OUP Academic, Oxford University Press, 1 Sept. 2006,

David C. Viano is the author of this article. He has a Ph.D.  In this text it talks about how they have done 60 laboratory tests where translational and rotational head accelerations were measured in the striking and struck players represented by hybrid dummies. Biochemical concussion risks were evaluated for each collision to determine changes with newer helmet designs. The purpose of this text is to show that doctors have tested the striking of a football player getting struck by another player. They measured the speed, how hard the hit, and the physical damage that happens on the inside of the body. This text intended audience is experimenters. People that experiment with different things to found out the likely cause of something. This text was not able to help me with my research.